Relationship between Solar Flux and Sunspot Activity Using Several Regression Models


  • Ruben Cornelius Siagian Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Medan, Medan, 20221, Indonesia
  • Lulut Alfaris Department of Marine Technology, Politeknik Kelautan dan Perikanan, Pangandaran, 46396, Indonesia
  • Ghulab Nabi Ahmad Institute of Applied Sciences, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, 202145, India
  • Nazish Laeiq Department of Computer Science, Institute of Technology and Management Aligarh, 202140, Indonesia
  • Aldi Cahya Muhammad Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Kustia, 7003, Bangladesh
  • Ukta Indra Nyuswantoro Department of Structure Engineering, Asiatek Energi Mitratama, Jakarta, 12870, Indonesia
  • Budiman Nasution Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Medan, Medan, 20221, Indonesia



Solar Flux, Sunspot Activity, Regression Analyis, Linear regression, SARIMA model analysis


This study examines the correlation and prediction between sunspots and solar flux, two closely related factors associated with solar activity, covering the period from 2005 to 2022. The study utilizes a combination of linear regression analysis and the ARIMA prediction method to analyze the relationship between these factors and forecast their values. The analysis results reveal a significant positive correlation between sunspots and solar flux. Additionally, the ARIMA prediction method suggests that the SARIMA model can effectively forecast the values of both sunspots and solar flux for a 12-period timeframe. However, it is essential to note that this study solely focuses on correlation analysis and does not establish a causal relationship. Nonetheless, the findings contribute valuable insights into future variations in solar flux and sunspot numbers, thereby aiding scientists in comprehending and predicting solar activity's potential impact on Earth. The study recommends further research to explore additional factors that may influence the relationship between sunspots and solar flux, extend the research period to enhance the accuracy of solar activity predictions and investigate alternative prediction methods to improve the precision of forecasts.


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How to Cite

Siagian, R. C., Alfaris, L. ., Ahmad, G. N. ., Laeiq, N. ., Muhammad, A. C. ., Nyuswantoro, U. I. ., & Nasution, B. . (2023). Relationship between Solar Flux and Sunspot Activity Using Several Regression Models. JURNAL ILMU FISIKA, 15(2), 146–165.



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